List of Hreflang Country and Language Codes

List of all Hreflang Tags

Table of Contents

Language Codes in Hreflang

Language codes are fundamental in hreflang implementation, serving as indicators of the language in which the content of a webpage is written. These codes follow the ISO 639-1 standard (or ISO 3166-1), which provides a two-letter code for each language.

Country ISO 3166-1 Alpha 2 Code
Andorra AD
United Arab Emirates AE
Afghanistan AF
Antigua and Barbuda AG
Anguilla AI
Albania AL
Armenia AM
Angola AO
Antarctica AQ
Argentina AR
American Samoa AS
Austria AT
Australia AU
Aruba AW
Åland Islands AX
Azerbaijan AZ
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA
Barbados BB
Bangladesh BD
Belgium BE
Burkina Faso BF
Bulgaria BG
Bahrain BH
Burundi BI
Benin BJ
Saint Barthélemy BL
Bermuda BM
Brunei Darussalam BN
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) BO
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba BQ
Brazil BR
Bahamas BS
Bhutan BT
Bouvet Island BV
Botswana BW
Belarus BY
Belize BZ
Canada CA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC
Congo, Democratic Republic of the CD
Central African Republic CF
Congo CG
Switzerland CH
Côte d’Ivoire CI
Cook Islands CK
Chile CL
Cameroon CM
China CN
Colombia CO
Costa Rica CR
Cuba CU
Cabo Verde CV
Curaçao CW
Christmas Island CX
Cyprus CY
Czechia CZ
Germany DE
Djibouti DJ
Denmark DK
Dominica DM
Dominican Republic DO
Algeria DZ
Ecuador EC
Estonia EE
Egypt EG
Western Sahara EH
Eritrea ER
Spain ES
Ethiopia ET
Finland FI
Fiji FJ
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) FK
Micronesia (Federated States of) FM
Faroe Islands FO
France FR
Gabon GA
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland GB
Grenada GD
Georgia GE
French Guiana GF
Guernsey GG
Ghana GH
Gibraltar GI
Greenland GL
Gambia GM
Guinea GN
Guadeloupe GP
Equatorial Guinea GQ
Greece GR
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands GS
Guatemala GT
Guam GU
Guinea-Bissau GW
Guyana GY
Hong Kong HK
Heard Island and McDonald Islands HM
Honduras HN
Croatia HR
Haiti HT
Hungary HU
Indonesia ID
Ireland IE
Israel IL
Isle of Man IM
India IN
British Indian Ocean Territory IO
Iraq IQ
Iran (Islamic Republic of) IR
Iceland IS
Italy IT
Jersey JE
Jamaica JM
Jordan JO
Japan JP
Kenya KE
Kyrgyzstan KG
Cambodia KH
Kiribati KI
Comoros KM
Saint Kitts and Nevis KN
Korea (Democratic People’s Republic of) KP
Korea, Republic of KR
Kuwait KW
Cayman Islands KY
Kazakhstan KZ
Lao People’s Democratic Republic LA
Lebanon LB
Saint Lucia LC
Liechtenstein LI
Sri Lanka LK
Liberia LR
Lesotho LS
Lithuania LT
Luxembourg LU
Latvia LV
Libya LY
Morocco MA
Monaco MC
Moldova, Republic of MD
Montenegro ME
Saint Martin (French part) MF
Madagascar MG
Marshall Islands MH
North Macedonia MK
Mali ML
Myanmar MM
Mongolia MN
Macao MO
Northern Mariana Islands MP
Martinique MQ
Mauritania MR
Montserrat MS
Malta MT
Mauritius MU
Maldives MV
Malawi MW
Mexico MX
Malaysia MY
Mozambique MZ
Namibia NA
New Caledonia NC
Niger NE
Norfolk Island NF
Nigeria NG
Nicaragua NI
Netherlands NL
Norway NO
Nepal NP
Nauru NR
Niue NU
New Zealand NZ
Oman OM
Panama PA
Peru PE
French Polynesia PF
Papua New Guinea PG
Philippines PH
Pakistan PK
Poland PL
Saint Pierre and Miquelon PM
Pitcairn PN
Puerto Rico PR
Palestine, State of PS
Portugal PT
Palau PW
Paraguay PY
Qatar QA
Réunion RE
Romania RO
Serbia RS
Russian Federation RU
Rwanda RW
Saudi Arabia SA
Solomon Islands SB
Seychelles SC
Sudan SD
Sweden SE
Singapore SG
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha SH
Slovenia SI
Svalbard and Jan Mayen SJ
Slovakia SK
Sierra Leone SL
San Marino SM
Senegal SN
Somalia SO
Suriname SR
South Sudan SS
Sao Tome and Principe ST
El Salvador SV
Sint Maarten (Dutch part) SX
Syrian Arab Republic SY
Eswatini SZ
Turks and Caicos Islands TC
Chad TD
French Southern Territories TF
Togo TG
Thailand TH
Tajikistan TJ
Tokelau TK
Timor-Leste TL
Turkmenistan TM
Tunisia TN
Tonga TO
Turkey TR
Trinidad and Tobago TT
Tuvalu TV
Taiwan, Province of China TW
Tanzania, United Republic of TZ
Ukraine UA
Uganda UG
United States Minor Outlying Islands UM
United States of America US
Uruguay UY
Uzbekistan UZ
Holy See VA
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines VC
Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) VE
Virgin Islands (British) VG
Virgin Islands (U.S.) VI
Viet Nam VN
Vanuatu VU
Wallis and Futuna WF
Samoa WS
Yemen YE
Mayotte YT
South Africa ZA
Zambia ZM
Zimbabwe ZW

Language Codes ISO 639-1 Standard

ISO 639-1 is part of a broader set of international standards that list short codes for language names. For hreflang, we specifically use the two-letter codes, which are designed to be universally understood and concise. For example, ‘en’ stands for English, ‘es’ for Spanish, and ‘fr’ for French.

The Role of Language Codes in Hreflang

When implementing hreflang tags, the language code is used to tell search engines the language of the webpage. This ensures that users searching in a particular language are more likely to find content in that language. Correct use of language codes is crucial for reaching a linguistically diverse audience.

Country Codes in Hreflang

While language codes specify the language, country codes in hreflang are used to target content to specific geographical regions. These codes follow the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 standard, which assigns two letters to each country or territory.

ISO language name 639-1 639-2/T 639-2/B 639-3 Notes
Abkhazian ab abk abk abk also known as Abkhaz
Afar aa aar aar aar
Afrikaans af afr afr afr
Akan ak aka aka aka Fanti is fat
Albanian sq sqi alb sqi macrolanguage, called “Albanian Phylozone” in 639-6
Amharic am amh amh amh
Arabic ar ara ara ara macrolanguage, >Standard Arabic is arb
Aragonese an arg arg arg
Armenian hy hye arm hye ISO 639-3 code hye is for >Classical Armenian
Assamese as asm asm asm
Avaric av ava ava ava also known as Avar
Avestan ae ave ave ave ancient
Aymara ay aym aym aym macrolanguage
Azerbaijani az aze aze aze macrolanguage, also known as Azeri
Bambara bm bam bam bam
Bashkir ba bak bak bak
Basque eu eus baq eus
Belarusian be bel bel bel
Bengali bn ben ben ben also known as Bangla
Bislama bi bis bis bis Language formed from English and >Vanuatuan languages, with some French influence.
Bosnian bs bos bos bos
Breton br bre bre bre
Bulgarian bg bul bul bul
Burmese my mya bur mya also known as Myanmar
Catalan, Valencian ca cat cat cat
Chamorro ch cha cha cha
Chechen ce che che che
Chichewa, Chewa, Nyanja ny nya nya nya
Chinese zh zho chi zho macrolanguage
Old cu chu chu chu Eastern Orthodox Church
Chuvash cv chv chv chv
Cornish kw cor cor cor
Corsican co cos cos cos
Cree cr cre cre cre macrolanguage
Croatian hr hrv hrv hrv
Czech cs ces cze ces
Danish da dan dan dan
Divehi, Dhivehi, Maldivian dv div div div
Flemish nl nld dut nld Flemish is not to be confused with the closely related  639-3 code vls
Dzongkha dz dzo dzo dzo
English en eng eng eng
Esperanto eo epo epo epo constructed, initially by L.L. Zamenhof in 1887
Estonian et est est est macrolanguage
Ewe ee ewe ewe ewe
Faroese fo fao fao fao
Fijian fj fij fij fij
Finnish fi fin fin fin
French fr fra fre fra
Western Frisian fy fry fry fry also known as Frisian or Fries
Fulah ff ful ful ful macrolanguage, also known as Fula
Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic gd gla gla gla
Galician gl glg glg glg
Ganda lg lug lug lug
Georgian ka kat geo kat
German de deu ger deu
Greek, Modern (1453–) el ell gre ell for  grc
Kalaallisut, Greenlandic kl kal kal kal
Guarani gn grn grn grn macrolanguage
Gujarati gu guj guj guj
Haitian, Haitian Creole ht hat hat hat
Hausa ha hau hau hau
Hebrew he heb heb heb Modern Hebrew. Code changed in 1989 from original ISO 639:1988, iw.
Herero hz her her her
Hindi hi hin hin hin
Hiri Motu ho hmo hmo hmo
Hungarian hu hun hun hun
Icelandic is isl ice isl
Ido io ido ido ido constructed by De Beaufront, 1907, as variation of Esperanto
Igbo ig ibo ibo ibo
Indonesian id ind ind ind covered by macrolanguage ms/msa. Changed in 1989 from original ISO 639:1988, in.>[1]
Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association) ia ina ina ina constructed by the >International Auxiliary Language Association
Interlingue, Occidental ie ile ile ile constructed by >Edgar de Wahl, first published in 1922
Inuktitut iu iku iku iku macrolanguage
Inupiaq ik ipk ipk ipk macrolanguage
Irish ga gle gle gle
Italian it ita ita ita
Japanese ja jpn jpn jpn
Javanese jv jav jav jav
Kannada kn kan kan kan
Kanuri kr kau kau kau macrolanguage
Kashmiri ks kas kas kas
Kazakh kk kaz kaz kaz
Central Khmer km khm khm khm also known as Khmer or Cambodian
Kikuyu, Gikuyu ki kik kik kik
Kinyarwanda rw kin kin kin
Kirghiz, Kyrgyz ky kir kir kir
Komi kv kom kom kom macrolanguage
Kongo kg kon kon kon macrolanguage
Korean ko kor kor kor
Kuanyama, Kwanyama kj kua kua kua
Kurdish ku kur kur kur macrolanguage
Lao lo lao lao lao
Latin la lat lat lat ancient
Latvian lv lav lav lav macrolanguage
Limburgan, Limburger, Limburgish li lim lim lim
Lingala ln lin lin lin
Lithuanian lt lit lit lit
Luba-Katanga lu lub lub lub also known as Luba-Shaba
Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch lb ltz ltz ltz also known as Luxembourgian and Lëtzebuergesch
Macedonian mk mkd mac mkd
Malagasy mg mlg mlg mlg macrolanguage
Malay ms msa may msa macrolanguage, Indonesian is id/ind
Malayalam ml mal mal mal
Maltese mt mlt mlt mlt
Manx gv glv glv glv
Maori mi mri mao mri also known as Māori
Marathi mr mar mar mar also known as Marāṭhī
Marshallese mh mah mah mah
Mongolian mn mon mon mon macrolanguage
Nauru na nau nau nau also known as Nauruan
Navajo, Navaho nv nav nav nav
North Ndebele nd nde nde nde also known as Northern Ndebele
South Ndebele nr nbl nbl nbl also known as Southern Ndebele
Ndonga ng ndo ndo ndo
Nepali ne nep nep nep macrolanguage
Norwegian no nor nor nor macrolanguage,  Nynorsk is nn/nno
Norwegian Bokmål nb nob nob nob covered by macrolanguage no/nor
Norwegian Nynorsk nn nno nno nno covered by macrolanguage no/nor
Sichuan Yi, Nuosu ii iii iii iii standard form of the Yi languages
Occitan oc oci oci oci
Ojibwa oj oji oji oji macrolanguage, also known as Ojibwe
Oriya or ori ori ori macrolanguage, also known as Odia
Oromo om orm orm orm macrolanguage
Ossetian, Ossetic os oss oss oss
Pali pi pli pli pli ancient, also known as Pāli
Pashto, Pushto ps pus pus pus macrolanguage
Persian fa fas per fas macrolanguage, also known as Farsi
Polish pl pol pol pol
Portuguese pt por por por
Punjabi, Panjabi pa pan pan pan
Quechua qu que que que macrolanguage
Moldavian, Moldovan ro ron rum ron the identifiers mo and mol for Moldavian are deprecated. They will not be assigned to different items, and recordings using these identifiers will not be invalid.
Romansh rm roh roh roh
Rundi rn run run run also known as Kirundi
Russian ru rus rus rus
Northern Sami se sme sme sme
Samoan sm smo smo smo
Sango sg sag sag sag
Sanskrit sa san san san ancient
Sardinian sc srd srd srd macrolanguage
Serbian sr srp srp srp the ISO 639-2/T code srp deprecated the ISO 639-2/B code scc
Shona sn sna sna sna
Sindhi sd snd snd snd
Sinhala, Sinhalese si sin sin sin
Slovak sk slk slo slk
Slovenian sl slv slv slv also known as Slovene
Somali so som som som
Southern Sotho st sot sot sot
Spanish, Castilian es spa spa spa
Sundanese su sun sun sun
Swahili sw swa swa swa macrolanguage
Swati ss ssw ssw ssw also known as Swazi
Swedish sv swe swe swe
Tagalog tl tgl tgl tgl note: Filipino (Pilipino) has the code fil
Tahitian ty tah tah tah one of the Reo Mā`ohi (languages of
Tajik tg tgk tgk tgk
Tamil ta tam tam tam
Tatar tt tat tat tat
Telugu te tel tel tel
Thai th tha tha tha
Tibetan bo bod tib bod also known as Standard Tibetan
Tigrinya ti tir tir tir
Tonga (Tonga Islands) to ton ton ton also known as Tongan
Tsonga ts tso tso tso
Tswana tn tsn tsn tsn
Turkish tr tur tur tur
Turkmen tk tuk tuk tuk
Twi tw twi twi twi covered by macrolanguage ak/aka
Uighur, Uyghur ug uig uig uig
Ukrainian uk ukr ukr ukr
Urdu ur urd urd urd
Uzbek uz uzb uzb uzb macrolanguage
Venda ve ven ven ven
Vietnamese vi vie vie vie
Volapük vo vol vol vol constructed
Walloon wa wln wln wln
Welsh cy cym wel cym
Wolof wo wol wol wol
Xhosa xh xho xho xho
Yiddish yi yid yid yid macrolanguage. Changed in 1989 from original ISO 639:1988, ji.
Yoruba yo yor yor yor
Zhuang, Chuang za zha zha zha macrolanguage
Zulu zu zul zul zul

Why does HREFLANG exist?

In the dynamic landscape of the internet, reaching a global audience requires more than just content—it demands content that resonates with that audience in their language and context. This is where the ‘hreflang’ attribute plays a crucial role. A cornerstone of international SEO, hreflang is an HTML attribute used to specify the language and geographical targeting of a webpage.

What is Hreflang?

Hreflang is an attribute within the <link> element in a website’s HTML that tells search engines what language and region the content is specifically targeted to. It helps search engines serve the correct language or regional URL in search results, thereby enhancing the user experience. The hreflang attribute is particularly beneficial for websites with content in multiple languages or regional variants, such as English content for both the UK and the USA.

Importance of Hreflang

The importance of hreflang can’t be overstated in an era where search engine optimization (SEO) is paramount. It addresses several key aspects:

  • Improved User Experience: By guiding users to the content in their language or region, it enhances user engagement.
  • Better Targeting and Reach: It allows websites to effectively target audiences in different regions and languages.
  • Avoiding Duplicate Content Penalties: By specifying language and regional variations, it helps search engines understand that similar content in different languages or regions is not duplicate content.
  • Enhanced SEO: Proper use of hreflang can improve search engine rankings by ensuring that the right regional or language version of a site is presented to users.

benefits of correct hreflang tag implementation

How is Hreflang Used?

Using hreflang involves adding a set of link elements in the <head> section of an HTML document. Each link element specifies a URL and its associated language and region. For instance, if you have an English page targeted to the US and a Spanish version targeted to Spain, you would use hreflang tags to indicate these differences to search engines.

Also if you are not sure if everything is correct on your website, you can use our tool Hreflang Tag Checker

The syntax for hreflang is straightforward yet requires precision. The attribute consists of a language code (as per ISO 639-1 standards) and optionally, a country code (based on ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 codes). These codes are used to create a value that specifies the intended language and, if needed, the region of the audience.

Country Codes ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 Standard

The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are succinct and standardized representations of countries and significant territories. For example, ‘US’ represents the United States, ‘GB’ for Great Britain, and ‘JP’ for Japan.

Utilizing Country Codes in Hreflang Tags

Incorporating country codes into hreflang tags enables webmasters to target content not only by language but also by region. This is particularly important for languages spoken in multiple countries or regions, where content might need to be tailored to local nuances, such as differences in currency, units of measure, or cultural references. A combination of language and country code in hreflang tags, like ‘en-GB’ for English content targeted to the UK, ensures that the right content reaches the right audience.

Practical Examples of Implementation Hreflang Tags in HTML

Hreflang tags are placed in the <head> section of an HTML document. Each tag specifies a URL and its associated language (and optionally, country).

Casual cases of Hreflang Tags in HTML

Example 1: Single Language, Multiple Countries

Suppose you have an English website with different versions for the USA and the UK. You would use the following hreflang tags:

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-US" href="http://example.com/us" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-GB" href="http://example.com/uk" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="x-default" href="http://example.com/" />

In this example:

  • en-US targets English speakers in the United States.
  • en-GB targets English speakers in the United Kingdom.
  • x-default is used for users in locations not targeted by the other tags or when the user’s language is unknown.

Example 2: Multiple Languages

If your website is available in different languages, for instance, English, Spanish, and French, your hreflang tags would look like this:

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en" href="http://example.com/en" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="es" href="http://example.com/es" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="fr" href="http://example.com/fr" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="x-default" href="http://example.com/" />

Here, en, es, and fr represent English, Spanish, and French versions of the website, respectively.

Advanced Hreflang Tag Implementation

Example 3: Language-Region Combinations

For more precise targeting, combining language and country codes is essential, especially for languages spoken in multiple regions.

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-CA" href="http://example.ca/en" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="fr-CA" href="http://example.ca/fr" />
<link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-AU" href="http://example.au/en" />

In this example:

  • en-CA and fr-CA target English and French speakers in Canada.
  • en-AU targets English speakers in Australia.

Best Practices for Hreflang Tag Usage

  • Consistency: Ensure the hreflang attribute’s value matches the page’s actual language and region.
  • Self-referential Tags: Include a hreflang tag for the current page itself.
  • Default Page: Specify a x-default tag for users whose language or region does not match any of the specified tags.

Recommendations for Implementing Hreflang Tags

Implementing hreflang tags correctly is crucial for ensuring that your website resonates with a diverse, global audience. Here are key best practices to follow, ensuring your hreflang tags are effective and contribute positively to your website’s SEO and user experience.

1. Accurate Language and Region Codes

  • Use Correct Codes: Always use the correct ISO 639-1 language codes and ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 country codes. Incorrect codes can lead to misinterpretation by search engines.
  • Be Specific Where Necessary: Use specific language-region combinations (like en-GB or fr-CA) for content targeted at speakers of a language in a particular country.

2. Comprehensive Tagging

  • Self-Referential Hreflang Tags: Each page should include a hreflang tag for itself, alongside tags for other language or regional variants.
  • Cover All Language Variants: Include hreflang tags for every language variant of your content. Omitting a version can lead to users being directed to the wrong language page.

3. Consistent Implementation

  • Consistency Across Pages: Ensure that the set of hreflang tags is consistent across all pages of your site. Each language version should reference all other language versions.
  • Avoid Conflicting Signals: Ensure your hreflang tags don’t conflict with other signals on your page, like the <html lang=""> attribute or on-page content.

4. Using ‘x-default’ Tag

  • Default Language Setting: Implement the x-default hreflang attribute for international visitors or when the user’s language preference is unknown. This tag points to a generic, often English-language page that is accessible to a wide audience.

5. Regular Audits and Updates

  • Keep Tags Updated: Regularly audit your hreflang tags, especially when adding new languages or making changes to your site’s structure.
  • Adapt to Changes: Be responsive to changes in language and country codes, updating your tags as necessary.

6. Avoid Common Mistakes

  • Missing Return Links: Each hreflang tag should be reciprocal; if page A links to page B, page B must link back to page A.
  • Incorrect URLs: Ensure that the URLs in your hreflang tags are fully qualified and accurately reflect the targeted page.

7. Technical Considerations

  • Sitemap Integration: In addition to inline implementation, consider adding hreflang information to your XML sitemap. This can help search engines discover and understand the language and regional targeting of your pages more efficiently.
  • Avoid Duplicate Content: Clearly differentiate content between your regional and language pages to prevent them from being marked as duplicate content by search engines.

Implementing hreflang tags can be complex, and even small errors can lead to significant issues in how search engines understand and index your website’s content for different regions and languages. Below are some of the most common mistakes and issues to be aware of.

errors in hreflang tag implementation

1. Incorrect Language or Country Codes

  • Mistake: Using wrong or non-standard ISO codes.
  • Impact: Search engines may not recognize the language or region, leading to improper indexing.
  • Solution: Double-check to use the correct ISO 639-1 and ISO 3166-1 Alpha-2 codes.

2. Inconsistent Implementation Across Pages

  • Mistake: Inconsistencies in hreflang tags across various pages of the website.
  • Impact: Confuses search engines about the correct language or regional version to display.
  • Solution: Ensure a consistent implementation across all pages.
  • Mistake: Not having reciprocal links—each page in a language set should reference all other pages.
  • Impact: Incomplete hreflang setup, potentially leading to some pages not being recognized.
  • Solution: Implement reciprocal hreflang tags on each version of the page.

4. Incorrect URLs in Hreflang Tags

  • Mistake: Using broken or incorrect URLs in hreflang annotations.
  • Impact: Search engines can’t find or correctly associate the targeted pages.
  • Solution: Regularly audit hreflang URLs to ensure they are correct and accessible.

5. Conflicting Language Signals

  • Mistake: Providing conflicting language signals on the page (like mismatching hreflang and HTML lang attributes).
  • Impact: Creates confusion about the intended audience of the page.
  • Solution: Align all language signals on the page for clarity.

6. Overlooking ‘x-default’ Tag

  • Mistake: Not including an ‘x-default’ hreflang tag for unspecified or global audiences.
  • Impact: Misses directing international or undetermined-language users to a default page.
  • Solution: Implement an ‘x-default’ tag pointing to a universally accessible page.

7. Duplicate Content Issues

  • Mistake: Having very similar or identical content on pages targeted to different languages or regions without proper hreflang tags.
  • Impact: Risk of being marked as duplicate content by search engines.
  • Solution: Clearly differentiate content and use hreflang tags to specify language and regional variations.

8. Neglecting Regular Updates

  • Mistake: Failing to update hreflang tags when making changes to the site structure or content.
  • Impact: Outdated tags can lead to incorrect page targeting.
  • Solution: Conduct regular audits and update hreflang tags as part of routine website maintenance.

FAQ on Hreflang Tags Implementation

1. What is the hreflang code for Germany?

The hreflang code for Germany is de-DE. This code combines the ISO 639 language code de for German with the ISO 3166 country code DE for Germany.

2. What is ISO 639 language code and ISO 3166 country code?

ISO 639 is a set of standards for language codes, typically two letters (ISO 639-1), while ISO 3166 is a standard for country codes, usually two letters (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2). These codes are used in hreflang attributes for specifying languages and countries, respectively.

3. What is the difference between country code and language code?

A language code (ISO 639) specifies the language of the content (e.g., en for English), while a country code (ISO 3166) specifies the geographic targeting (e.g., US for the United States). Together in hreflang tags, they target language-specific content to specific countries.

4. What is an example of a hreflang?

An example of a hreflang tag is <link rel="alternate" hreflang="en-GB" href="http://example.com/uk">, which indicates that the page is targeted towards English speakers in Great Britain.

5. What language is a href?

The term ‘href’ itself is not a language; it stands for “hypertext reference” in HTML and is used to specify URLs in various HTML tags, not just hreflang.

6. What is hreflang in English?

‘Hreflang’ is an HTML attribute used to specify the language and geographical targeting of a webpage. In English, it’s often used to indicate content variations such as en-US for the United States or en-GB for Great Britain.

7. What is the difference between HTML Lang and hreflang?

The lang attribute in HTML specifies the language of the content of a single page, while hreflang is used in link elements to indicate language and regional targeting for similar pages in different languages.

8. What is the syntax of the hreflang tag?

The syntax of an hreflang tag is <link rel="alternate" hreflang="[language code]-[country code]" href="[URL]">. The language code follows ISO 639-1 standards, and the country code follows ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 standards.

9. Are Hreflang values case sensitive?

No, hreflang values are not case sensitive. However, it’s recommended to use lowercase for consistency and adherence to general best practices.

10. Do I need to implement Hreflang attributes site-wide?

Yes, implementing hreflang attributes site-wide is recommended for multilingual or multinational sites to ensure search engines correctly understand the language and regional targeting of each page.

11. Which is the Hreflang tag for English in Australia?

The hreflang tag for English content targeted to Australia is en-AU. This combines the language code en for English with the country code AU for Australia.

12. How is Hreflang used in Canada?

In Canada, hreflang is used to target content to English or French speakers, using codes like en-CA for English and fr-CA for French, reflecting Canada’s bilingual nature.

13. What country does the ‘es’ language code refer to?

The es language code (ISO 639-1) refers to the Spanish language but does not specify a country. For country-specific targeting, it is combined with a country code, like es-ES for Spain.

14. What is the country code for Wales?

Wales does not have a separate ISO 3166 country code as it is part of the United Kingdom. The country code for the United Kingdom is GB. However, for language targeting in Wales, you could use cy-GB for Welsh language content in Great Britain.

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